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Valores de referencia - Información para el especialista

I. Ecocardiografía Modo M1

Valores normales Modo M en una población sana (mm) con edades comprendidas entre 20 y 97 años1,2:

Límite superior de la normalidad del VI (mm) según el sexo y la talla (m)2:

Masa ventricular izquierda3:

Dimensiones cardiacas en deportistas, según el tipo de ejercicio7

Dimensiones cardiacas (mm) en deportistas8

Función sistólica de ventrículo izquierdo9:

Cavidades derechas9:

Parámetros valvulares9:

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1 Echo Manual, Mayo Clinic. JK Oh. Assessment of ventricular function. Ed Little Brown and Company,2000.
2 Lauer MS, Larson MG, Levy D. Gender-specific reference M-Mode values in adults: population-derived values with consideration of the impact of height. J Am Coll Cardiol.1995; 26:1039-1046
3 Myers JH, Stirling MC, Choy M, Buda AJ, Gallagher KP. Direct measurements of inner and outer wall thickening dynamics with epicardial echocardiography. Circulation 1986; 74(1)164-172
4 Hammond IW, Devereux RB, Alderman MH, Lutas EM, Spitzer MC, Crowley JS et al. The prevalence and correlates of echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy among employed patients with uncomplicated hypertension. JACC 1988; 7: 639-50
5 Helak JW, Reichek N. Quantification of the human left ventricular mass and volume by echo. In vitro anatomic validation. Circulation 1981; 63: 1398-1407
6 Shub C, Klein AL, Zachariah PK, Bailey KR, Tajik AJ. Determination of left ventricular mass by echocardiography in a normal `population: effect of age and sex in addition to body size. Mayo Clin Proc 1994; 69: 205-211
7 Pluim BM, Zwinderman AH, Der Laarse A, Der Wall EE. The athlete’s heart. A meta-analysis of cardiac structure and function. Circulation 1999; 100: 336-344
8 Pellicia A, Maron BJ, Spataro A et al. The upper limit of physiologic hypertrophy in highly trained elite athletes. New England Journal of Medicine 1991; 324:295-301
9 Feingenbaum H. Echocardiography. Fifth edition. Echocardiographic evaluation of cardiac
10 Weyman AE, Principles and practice of echocardiography. Second ed. Lea & Febiger. 1994.
11 Schiller NB, Shah PM, Crawford M et al. Recommendations for the quantification of the left ventricle by two dimensional echocardiography. Am Soc Echocardiography committee on standards subcommittee on quantification of two dimensional echocardiograms. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 1989; 2: 358-367
12 Pearlman JD, Triulzi MO, King ME et al J Am Coll Cardiol 1988;12:1432-41
13 Wahr DW, Wang YS, Schiller NB. Left ventricular volumes determinates by two dimensional echocardiography in a normal adult population. J Am Coll Cardiol.1983; I: 863-868
14 García Fernández MA. Principios del doppler cardiaco. Interamericana. McGraw-Hill. 1995
15 Azevedo J, García Fernández MA, Puerta P, Moreno M, San Román D, Torrecilla E, Delcan JL. Pattern of pulsed doppler tissue imaging of regional ventricular wall diastolic velocities in a normal population: its relation with the left ventricular doppler inflow profile. Eur Heart J 1995; 16: 451:2640
16 García Fernández MA, Zamorano J, Azevedo J. Doppler tissue imaging echocardiography. Mc Graw-Hill. 1997
17 Zamorano J, Wallbridge DR, Ge J, Drozd J, Nesser J, Erbel R. Non-invasive assessment of cardiac physiology by tissue doppler echocardiography. Eur Heart J 1997; 18: 330-339
18 Dae-Won Sohn, In-Ho Chan, Dong-Jun Lee et al. Assessment of mitral annulus velocity by doppler tissue imaging in the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997; 30:474-480
19 Marcos-Alberca P, García-Fernández MA, Ledesma J, Malpica N, Santos a, Moreno M, Bermejo J, Antoranz JC, Desco M. Intramyocardial analysis of regional systolic and diastolic function in ischemic heart disease with doppler tissue imaging: role of the different myocardial layers. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2002; 15:99-108
20 Donovan C, Armstrong WF, Bach DS, Arbor A. quantitative doppler tissue imaging of the left ventricular myocardium: validation in normal subjects. Am Heart J 1995; 130:100-104
21 De Mey S, Sutter J, Vierendeels J, Verdorick P. Diastolic filling and pressure imaging: taking advantage of the information in a colour M-mode doppler image. Eur J Echocardiography 2001; 2:219-233
22 Moller JE, Sondergaard E, Poulsen SH, Egstrup K. Pseudonormal and restrictive filling patterns predicts left ventricular dilation and cardiac death after first myocardial infarction: a serial color M-Mode doppler echocardiographyc study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000; 36:1841-46
23 Moller JE, Poulsen Sh, Soudergaard E Egstrup K. Preload dependence of colour M-mode doppler flow propagation velocity in controls and in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2000; 13:902-909
24 Nishihara K, Mikami T, Takatsuji H et al. Usefulness of early diastolic flow propagation velocity measured by colour M-mode doppler technique for the assessment of left ventricular function in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2000; 13: 801-808
25 Firstenberg MS, Levine BD, Garcia MJ, Greenberg NL, Cardon L, Morehead AJ, Zuckerman J, Thomas JD. Relationship of echocardiography indices to pulmonary capillary wedge pressures in healthy volunteers. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000; 36:1664-1669
26 Voigt JU, Arnold MF, Karlson M, Hübbert L, Kukulsi T, Hatle L, Sutherland GR. Assessment of regional longitudinal myocardial strain rate derived from doppler myocardial imaging indexes in normal and infracted myocardium. J Am Soc Echcardigr. 2000; 13:588-598
27 Nagueh Sherif, Middleton Katherine, Kopelen Helen, Zoghbi William, Quiñones MA. Doppler tissue imaging: a non-invasive technique for evaluation of left ventricular relaxation and estimation of filling pressures. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997; 30:1527-1533
28-29 García MJ, Rodriguez L, ares M, Griffin B, Thomas JD, Klein AL. Differentiation of constrictive pericarditis from restrictive cardiomyopathy: assessment of left ventricular diastolic velocities in longitudinal axis doppler tissue imaging. J Am Col Cardiol 1996; 27:108-114.
30 Moller JE, Sondergaard E, Poulsen SH, Egstrup K. Pseudonormal and restrictive filling patterns predicts left ventricular dilation and cardiac death after first myocardial infarction: a serial colour M-Mode doppler echocardiographyc study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000; 36:1841-46
31 Ueno Y, Nakamura Y, Kinoshita M, Fujita T, Sakamoto T, Okamura H. Non-invasive estimation of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure by colour m-mode doppler echocardiography in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Echocardiography 2002; 19(2): 95-102
32 Moller JE, Sondergaard E, Seward JB, Appleton CP, Egstrup K. Ratio of left ventricular peak E wave velocity to flow propagation velocity assessed by colour M Mode doppler echocardiography in first myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000; 35:363-370.
33 Tribouilloy CM, Enriquez-Sarano M, Bailey KR, Seward JB, Tajik AJ. Assessment of the severity of aortic regurgitation using the width of the vena contracta. Circulation 2000; 102:558-564

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